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Energy utilization and metabolism in spawning migrating Early Stuart sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): the migratory paradox

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Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were followed during their 1400-km-long migration from cessation of feeding outside British Columbia, Canada, up the Fraser River to spawning. Enzymatic capacity (indicative of glycolysis, -oxidation, and respiratory chain ATP formation), muscle fibre size distribution, body and muscle conformation, and gross chemical composition in different parts of red and white muscle were monitored to determine energy strategies throughout the migration. The mobilization of extramuscular lipid depots was also monitored. The most conspicuous change in white muscle, concomitant with a large decrease in protein content, was an ordered reduction in muscle fibre size and lipid depots with distance covered, resulting in an accumulation of fibres with a cross section between 2000 and 6000 µm2 and a maintained level of 4% intramuscular fat. A peak in oxidative capacity was noted in red muscle during the strenuous passage of Fraser Canyon. In white muscle, glycolytic capacity was maintained at least until passage of the Fraser Canyon. Enzymatic capacity was higher in the caudal than rostral part of the muscle. Differences were also found between lateral and dorsal parts of the white muscle, indicating significant differences in the timing and magnitude of enzymatic capacity of red and white muscle.

Nous avons suivi des saumons rouges (Onchorhynchus nerka) au cours de leur migration de 1400 km, depuis l'arrêt de leur alimentation au large de la Colombie-Britannique jusqu'à la fraye après la remontée du Fraser. Afin de caractériser les stratégies énergétiques au cours de la migration, nous avons mesuré la capacité enzymatique qui est indicatrice de la glycolyse, de la -oxydation et de la chaîne respiratoire, ainsi que la distribution des tailles des fibres musculaires, la conformation du corps et des muscles, la composition chimique brute de différente parties des muscles rouges et blancs, et la mobilisation des dépôts lipidiques extra-musculaires. Conjointement à l'importante réduction du contenu en protéines, le changement le plus apparent dans le muscle blanc est la diminution en fonction de la distance parcourue des dépôts lipidiques et de la taille des fibres musculaires; il en résulte une accumulation de fibres dont la section transversale se situe entre 2000 et 6000 µm2 et le maintien d'un niveau de lipides de 4 % à l'intérieur du muscle blanc. Le maximum de la capacité oxydative du muscle rouge a été observé lors du passage épuisant du canyon du Fraser. La capacité glycolytique du muscle blanc s'est maintenue au moins jusqu'à la traversée du canyon du Fraser. La capacité enzymatique est plus grande dans la région caudale des muscles que dans leur partie rostrale. Il existe aussi des différences entre les parties latérales et dorsales du muscle blanc, ce qui indique qu'il y a des dif férences significatives dans l'évolution temporelle et l'importance de la capacité enzymatique des muscles rouges et blancs.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2004

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  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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