Interactions between hatchery and wild salmonids in streams: differences in biology and evidence for competition

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Abstract:

Competition between hatchery-reared and wild salmonids in streams has frequently been described as an important negative ecological interaction, but differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology that potentially affect competitive ability have been studied more than direct tests of competition. We review the differences reported, designs appropriate for testing different hypotheses about competition, and tests of competition reported in the literature. Many studies have provided circumstantial evidence for competition, but the effects of competition were confounded with other variables. Most direct experiments of competition used additive designs that compared treatments in which hatchery fish were introduced into habitats containing wild fish with controls without hatchery fish. These studies are appropriate for quantifying the effects of hatchery fish at specific combinations of fish densities and stream carrying capacity. However, they do not measure the relative competitive ability of hatchery versus wild fish because the competitive ability of hatchery fish is confounded with the increased density that they cause. We are aware of only two published studies that used substitutive experimental designs in which density was held equal among treatments, thereby testing for differences in competitive ability. Additional substitutive experiments will help managers to better understand the ecological risk of stocking hatchery fish.

La compétition entre les salmonidés de pisciculture et les salmonidés sauvages est fréquemment décrite comme une importante interaction écologique négative; cependant, on a plus souvent étudié les différences de comportement, de physiologie et de morphologie qui affectent potentiellement la capacité de faire compétition que testé directement la compétition. Nous faisons une revue des différences signalées, des plans d'expérience appropriés aux diverses hypothèses concernant la compétition, ainsi que des tests de compétition décrits dans la littérature. Plusieurs études fournissent des preuves indirectes de la compétition, mais les effets de la compétition ne sont pas séparés de ceux d'autres variables. La plupart des expériences directes sur la compétition ont un plan d'expérience avec additions qui compare des situations où l'on ajoute des poissons de pisciculture à des habitats contenant des poissons sauvages à des situations témoins sans addition de poissons de pisciculture. Ces études sont adéquates pour quantifier les effets des poissons de pisciculture à des combinaisons particulières de densités de poissons et de stocks limites. Cependant, elles ne mesurent pas la capacité relative de compétition des poissons de pisciculture par rapport aux poissons sauvages, car la capacité de compétition des poissons de pisciculture est masquée par l'augmentation de densité qu'ils causent. Seulement deux études publiées, à notre connaissance, ont un plan d'expérience avec substitutions dans lequel les densités sont maintenues constantes dans tous les traitements, si bien qu'elles mettent à l'épreuve les différences de capacité de compétition. De futures études de substitution permettront aux gestionnaires de mieux comprendre les risques écologiques des empoissonnements avec des poissons de pisciculture.[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2003

More about this publication?
  • Published continuously since 1901 (under various titles), this monthly journal is the primary publishing vehicle for the multidisciplinary field of aquatic sciences. It publishes perspectives (syntheses, critiques, and re-evaluations), discussions (comments and replies), articles, and rapid communications, relating to current research on cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or processes that affect aquatic systems. The journal seeks to amplify, modify, question, or redirect accumulated knowledge in the field of fisheries and aquatic science. Occasional supplements are dedicated to single topics or to proceedings of international symposia.
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