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Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children

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Abstract:

This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 ± 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child’s weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Μ-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT 2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT 2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT 2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.

Cette étude compare les artères et le cœur de préadolescents présentant un surpoids (OW) à ceux présentant un poids dit normal (NW). Vingt enfants (10,2 ± 0,4 ans) classés OW selon les indices de masse corporelle (BMI) ajustés à l’âge et 43 enfants classés NW participent à cette étude. En plus de la taille, du poids et de la surface corporelle, on évalue le pourcentage de gras et la masse maigre d’après les mesures d’épaisseur des plis cutanés. On calcule également chez chaque enfant l’équivalent métabolique de l’activité physique d’une semaine (PAME) au moyen d’un questionnaire normalisé et le degré de maturité sexuelle, par auto-évaluation, au moyen de l’échelle de Tanner. En outre, on évalue la capacité aérobique maximale au moyen d’une épreuve d’effort sur vélo ergomètre, puis on ajuste les résultats en fonction de la masse maigre. On mesure la pression artérielle moyenne d’après les données de pression systolique (SBP) et diastolique (DBP) obtenues par photopléthysmographie (Finapres) et l’on mesure les dimensions cardiaques par échocardiographie bidimensionnelle en mode M que l’on normalise en fonction de la surface corporelle et de la taille2,7. La pression différentielle de l’artère carotide gauche (CaPP) est mesurée au moyen d’un tonomètre par aplanation. La masse ventriculaire gauche (LVM) et la LVMHT 2,7 des garçons et des filles OW sont plus élevées que celles des garçons et des filles NW. Aussi, la CaPP de la SBP du groupe OW est significativement inférieure à la CaPP de la SBP du groupe NW. Les valeurs du PAME et de la capacité aérobique maximale relative sont significativement supérieures chez les garçons. Comparativement aux valeurs du groupe NW, les valeurs de débit cardiaque et de volume d’éjection systolique du groupe OW sont significativement plus grandes, mais la fraction éjectée est semblable chez les deux groupes. Chez les enfants NW, la LVMHT 2,7 ajustée est associée aux mesures des volumes cardiaques, aux BMI et à la DBP; chez les enfants OW, la LVMHT 2,7 ne révèle aucune corrélation significative avec les variables à l’étude. En conclusion, on observe déjà chez des enfants OW prépubères âgés de 10 ans des adaptations cardiovasculaires.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2008-12-01

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  • This bimonthly journal has a 30-year history of publishing, first as the Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, and later as the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. It publishes original research articles, reviews, and commentaries, focussing on the application of physiology, nutrition, and metabolism to the study of human health, physical activity, and fitness. The published research, reviews, and symposia will be of interest to exercise physiologists, physical fitness and exercise rehabilitation specialists, public health and health care professionals, as well as basic and applied physiologists, nutritionists, and biochemists.
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