Effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition on oxidative stress and swimming performance in rats

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Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on oxidative stress and physical performance after swimming until exhaustion in rats. Blood and gastrocnemius muscle samples were collected before, immediately after, and 5 h after exercise and the respective timepoints after allopurinol administration. Xanthine oxidase and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in plasma and muscle, whereas catalase activity and reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione were measured in erythrocytes and muscle. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in plasma, erythrocytes, and muscle. As expected, allopurinol inhibited xanthine oxidase activity. Compared with their nonallopurinol-treated counterparts, rats treated with allopurinol showed a 35% decrease in physical performance, as indicated by the shorter swimming time to exhaustion. Exercise alone increased PC and TBARS concentration in plasma, erythrocytes, and gastrocnemius muscle. Similarly, allopurinol alone increased PC and TBARS concentration in erythrocytes and gastrocnemius muscle, decreased TAC in plasma and gastrocnemius muscle, and decreased the GSH:GSSG ratio in erythrocytes. Our data illustrate that, in general, exercise and allopurinol alone increased the levels of most of the oxidative stress markers measured in plasma, erythrocytes, and gastrocnemius muscle. Xanthine oxidase inhibition provoked a marked reduction in physical performance.

Le but de cette étude est d’analyser l’effet de l’allopurinol, un inhibiteur de la xanthine oxydase, sur le stress par oxydation et sur le temps de performance au cours d’une épreuve de nage jusqu’à l’épuisement chez des rats. On prélève des échantillons de sang et de tissu musculaire du jumeau avant, immédiatement après et 5 h après la fin de l’épreuve de nage et de l’administration de l’allopurinol. On évalue l’activité de la xanthine oxydase et la capacité antioxydative (TAC) du plasma et du tissu musculaire de même que l’activité de la catalase et des concentrations de glutathion réduit (GSH) et oxydé (GSSG) dans les globules rouges et dans le muscle. On évalue les concentrations de substances réagissant à l'acide thiobarbiturique (TBARS) et les carbonyles peptidiques (PC) dans le plasma, les globules rouges et le muscle. Comme prévu, l’allopurinol inhibe l’activité de la xanthine oxydase. Comparativement au groupe témoin non traité à l’allopurinol, la performance physique des rats traités diminue de 35 % comme le révèle la diminution du temps de nage jusqu’à l’épuisement. L’exercice physique en soi augmente les concentrations de PC et de TBARS dans le plasma, les globules rouges et le muscle jumeau. L’allopurinol administré seul augmente aussi les concentrations de PC et de TBARS dans les globules rouges et dans le muscle, diminue la TAC du plasma et du tissu musculaire et diminue le ratio GSH/GSSG dans les globules rouges. D’après nos observations, l’exercice physique seul et l’allopurinol seul augmentent généralement les niveaux de la plupart des marqueurs du stress oxydatif dans le plasma, les globules rouges et le muscle jumeau. L’inhibition de la xanthine oxydase suscite une diminution importante de la performance physique.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2008

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  • This bimonthly journal has a 30-year history of publishing, first as the Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, and later as the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. It publishes original research articles, reviews, and commentaries, focussing on the application of physiology, nutrition, and metabolism to the study of human health, physical activity, and fitness. The published research, reviews, and symposia will be of interest to exercise physiologists, physical fitness and exercise rehabilitation specialists, public health and health care professionals, as well as basic and applied physiologists, nutritionists, and biochemists.
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