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Open Access Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

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Abstract:

The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are believed to represent novel species. Diaporthe gulyae sp. nov. is described for isolates that caused a severe stem canker, specifically pale brown to dark brown, irregularly shaped lesions centred at the stem nodes with pith deterioration and midstem lodging. This pathogenicity of D. gulyae was confirmed by satisfying Koch's Postulates. These symptoms are almost identical to those of sunflower stem canker caused by D. helianthi that can cause yield reductions of up to 40 % in Europe and the USA, although it has not been found in Australia. We show that there has been broad misapplication of the name D. helianthi to many isolates of Diaporthe (Phomopsis) found causing, or associated with, stem cankers on sunflower. In GenBank, a number of isolates had been identified as D. helianthi, which were accommodated in several clades by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Two less damaging species, D. kochmanii sp. nov. and D. kongii sp. nov., are also described from cankers on sunflower in Australia.

Keywords: DIAPORTHE GULYAE; DIAPORTHE KOCHMANII; DIAPORTHE KONGII; ITS; PHYLOGENY; SUNFLOWER TAXONOMY; TEF-1ALPHA

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3767/003158511X617110

Publication date: 2011-12-31

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  • Persoonia aims to publish papers dealing with molecular phylogeny and evolution of fungi. A further aim is to promote fungal taxonomy by employing a polythetic approach to clarify the true phylogeny and relationships within the kingdom Fungi. The journal publishes high-quality papers elucidating known and novel fungal taxa at the DNA level, and also strives to present novel insights into evolutionary processes and relationships. Papers to be considered include research articles and reviews.

    Papers are published using a Fast Track system. This implies that the papers are immediately published online and freely available through the internet via this website. Volumes appear twice a year (June and December). From Volume 36 onwards (2016) hard copy volumes will only be made available through printing-on-demand. The issues can be ordered separately through the Publication Division of Naturalis Biodiversity Center; e-mail: publications@naturalis.nl.

    Persoonia is a journal published jointly by the Naturalis Biodiversity Center and the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute.
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