Sex Differences in Concussion Symptoms of High School Athletes
Authors: Frommer, Leah J.; Gurka, Kelly K.; Cross, Kevin M.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Saliba, Susan A.
Source: Journal of Athletic Training, 1 February 2011, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 76-84(9)
Abstract:Context: More than 1.6 million sport-related concussions occur every year in the United States, affecting greater than 5 % of all high school athletes who participate in contact sports. As more females participate in sports, understanding possible differences in concussion symptoms between sexes becomes more important.
Objective: To compare symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time to return to sport between males and females with sport-related concussions.
Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.
Setting: Data were collected from 100 high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online).
Patients or Other Participants: Athletes from participating schools who sustained concussions while involved in interscholastic sports practice or competition in 9 sports (boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball and girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball) during the 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 school years. A total of 812 sport concussions were reported (610 males, 202 females).
Main Outcome Measure(s): Reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and return-to-play time.
Results: No difference was found between the number of symptoms reported (P = .30). However, a difference was seen in the types of symptoms reported. In year 1, males reported amnesia (exact P = .03) and confusion/disorientation (exact P = .04) more frequently than did females. In year 2, males reported more amnesia (exact P = .002) and confusion/ disorientation (exact P = .002) than did females, whereas females reported more drowsiness (exact P= .02) and sensitivity to noise (exact P= .002) than did males. No differences were observed for symptom resolution time (P = .40) or return-to-play time (P = .43) between sexes.
Conclusions: The types of symptoms reported differed between sexes after sport-related concussion, but symptom resolution time and return-to-play timelines were similar.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2011