Ultrasound Techniques Applied to Body Fat Measurement in Male and Female Athletes
Authors: Pineau, Jean-Claude; Filliard, Jean Robert; Bocquet, Michel
Source: Journal of Athletic Training, 1 April 2009, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 142-147(6)
Abstract:Context: For athletes in disciplines with weight categories, it is important to assess body composition and weight fluctuations.
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring body fat percentage with a portable ultrasound device possessing high accuracy and reliability versus fan-beam, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
Design: Cross-validation study.
Setting: Research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants: A total of 93 athletes (24 women, 69 men), aged 23.5 ± 3.7 years, with body mass index = 24.0 ± 4.2 and body fat percentage via DEXA = 9.41 ± 8.1 participated. All participants were elite athletes selected from the Institut National des Sports et de l'Education Physique. These participants practiced a variety of weight-category sports.
Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured body fat and body fat percentage using an ultrasound technique associated with anthropometric values and the DEXA reference technique. Cross-validation between the ultrasound technique and DEXA was then performed.
Results: Ultrasound estimates of body fat percentage were correlated closely with those of DEXA in both females (r = 0.97, standard error of the estimate = 1.79) and males (r = 0.98, standard error of the estimate = 0.96). The ultrasound technique in both sexes had a low total error (0.93). The 95 % limit of agreement was –0.06 ± 1.2 for all athletes and did not show an overprediction or underprediction bias. We developed a new model to produce body fat estimates with ultrasound and anthropometric dimensions.
Conclusions: The limits of agreement with the ultrasound technique compared with DEXA measurements were very good. Consequently, the use of a portable ultrasound device produced accurate body fat and body fat percentage estimates in relation to the fan-beam DEXA technique.