The effect of eye opening and closing on the result of facial wrinkle assessment

Authors: Tsukahara, Kazue; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Osanai, Osamu; Fujimura, Tutomu; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

Source: Skin Research and Technology, Volume 15, Number 4, November 2009 , pp. 384-391(8)

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Abstract:

Background/purpose:

Since there is no standard protocol that specifies the opening or closing of eyelids in wrinkle assessment, the eyelid position of subjects at the time of assessment varies from study to study. This study aimed to reveal the effect of eye opening and closing on the result of wrinkle assessment. The study also attempted to analyze the age-, site-, and ethnicity-dependent variations in the effect. Methods:

Open- and closed-eyed photographs were obtained from 87 Japanese women of ages ranging from 21 to 73 years, and also from 80 American women comprising of Asians, Caucasians, Africans and Hispanics in their 30s. Their wrinkle intensities were scored separately at nine facial sites using a five-point photo scale. The obtained scores were compared between open- and closed-eyed photographs. The differences were then compared across age- and ethnic-groups. Results:

In Japanese subjects, a significant difference was found at the forehead wrinkle in all age groups, and also at the glabella, nasal root and eye corner in the middle and old age groups. In American subjects, significant differences were found at the forehead, nasal root, eye-corner, and upper and lower eyelids. The differences were more prominent in the Hispanic and Caucasian Americans than in the Asian and African Americans. Conclusion:

These results suggest that the eyelid position should be considered as a variable in wrinkle assessment.

Keywords: aging; facial muscle; photo scale; wrinkle

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00375.x

Affiliations: Biological Science Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tochigi, Japan

Publication date: November 1, 2009

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