It has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is able to induce both in vivo and in vitro, tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF) release. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, using a human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544, the mechanism(s)
of UV‐induced TNF release and the ability of commonly used sunscreens to modulate UV‐induced TNF release. TNF release can be partially prevented both by adding an anti‐human IL‐1α antibody after irradiation, suggesting an autocrine effect of IL‐1α
in inducing TNF release, and by adding antioxidants indicating also a role of oxidant species. TPCK, a Iκ‐Bα protease inhibitor, was able to virtually abolish UV‐induced TNF release, indicating that UV‐induced TNF release requires NF‐κB activation.
Anti‐human IL‐1β antibody was ineffective as expected, considering that keratinocytes are unable to process pre‐IL‐1β to its active form. To evaluate the sunscreen's modulation on UV‐induced TNF release, confluent cells were irradiated, in the presence
or absence of the tested sunscreens (Uvinul MS40, Uvinul P25 and Uvinul DS49). Different IC50 values could be calculated, which may be related to different UV absorption spectrums: Uvinul MS40 offers great protection by virtue of its broader absorption spectrum, closely followed
by Uvinul P25 and finally by Uvinul DS49.