Abstract – The aim of this study was to document the pattern and incidence of mandibular fractures occurring in rural population, at Rural Dental College and Hospital, Maharashtra, India. A retrospective analysis of patient records and radiographs for the 5-year period from January 2003 to December 2007 was conducted. Data were identified and analyzed based on age group, gender distribution, anatomic location, and cause of injury. A total of 324 patients with 486 injuries were reviewed, males formed 80.9% and females 19.1% of the studied population, with peak incidence occurring in the 21–30 years age group. The most common fractures site was parasymphysis (39.3%). The etiology of mandibular fractures was road traffic accidents (42.9%), followed by falls (25.9%), assaults and interpersonal violence (20.7%), and animal injuries (10.5%). Our results exhibit that road traffic accidents remain the major cause of mandibular trauma and animal injuries being found exclusively in rural population. There is a variation of incidence and pattern of maxillofacial trauma from region to region.