The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of HIF‐1α, GLUT‐1, Bcl‐2 and Ki‐67 during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of rectal cancer, and to investigate the fluctuation of these biomarkers in relation to pathological response to CRT. The study included
86 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma receiving preoperative CRT (>50.4 Gy and Uracil/Tegafur). Immunohistological expressions of HIF‐1α, GLUT‐1, Bcl‐2 and Ki‐67 were investigated in biopsies taken before treatment, after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of
CRT and in specimens from the operation. Decreasing expressions of HIF‐1α, Bcl‐2 and Ki‐67 were observed during CRT, whereas GLUT‐1 overall was unchanged. No significant changes of the markers were observed in the interval between CRT and surgery. A significant
association was observed between the presence of residual carcinoma after 6 weeks of treatment and pathological response to CRT, but no association was seen between the fluctuations of any of the markers and response to CRT. This unique material containing specimens before, after and
during CRT for rectal cancer demonstrated biological dynamics in HIF‐1α, Bcl‐2 and Ki‐67, but not GLUT‐1, expression during CRT, and a significant association was seen between the presence of residual carcinoma after 6 weeks of treatment and pathological
response to CRT.