The prognostic significance of growth factors and growth factor receptors in gastric adenocarcinoma
We evaluated growth factors/receptors expression in gastric adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF‐D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)‐2, VEGFR‐3, transforming growth
factor (TGF)‐α, TGF‐β1, and TGF‐β‐RII in tissue microarrays of adenocarcinoma, dysplasia, metaplasia, and gastritis. In adenocarcinoma, the expression rates of EGFR, VEGF, VEGF‐D, VEGFR‐2, VEGFR‐3, TGF‐α, TGF‐β1,
and TGF‐β‐RII were 2.0%, 0%, 10.7%, 4.4%, 11.2%, 26.3%, 9.4%, and 19.5%, respectively. VEGF‐D, TGF‐α, TGF‐β1, and TGF‐β‐RII expression rate were higher in adenocarcinoma than in other groups. TGF‐β‐RII
expression was correlated with VEGFR‐3, VEGF‐D, and TGF‐α expression in adenocarcinomas. Tumor location, histologic type, stage, lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, angioinvasion, VEGF‐D, and VEGFR‐2 expressions were associated with patient survival
in a log rank test and advanced stage and positive expression of VEGF‐D were poor prognostic factors using Cox analysis. VEGF‐D expression may be of prognostic value in gastric adenocarcinoma, whereas EGFR and TGF family expression may only have a minor influence.