Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a complex defect in immune responsiveness to human papillomavirus-6 and -11
Abstract:Bonagura VR, Hatam LJ, Rosenthal DW, DeVoti JA, Lam F, Steinberg BM, Abramson AL. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a complex defect in immune responsiveness to human papillomavirus-6 and -11. APMIS 2010; 118: 455–470.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease of the larynx caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) -6 or -11, associated with significant morbidity and on occasion mortality. Here we summarize our current understanding of the permissive adaptive and innate responses made by patients with RRP that support chronic HPV infection and prevent immune clearance of these viruses. Furthermore, we provide new evidence of TH2-like polarization in papillomas and blood of patients with RRP, restricted CD4 and CD8 Vβ repertoires, the effect of HPV-11 early protein E6 on T-cell alloreactivity, enriched Langerhans cell presence in papillomas, and evidence that natural killer cells are dysfunctional in RRP. We review the immunogenetic mechanisms that regulate the dysfunctional responses made by patients with RRP in response to HPV infection of the upper airway. In addition, we are identifying T-cell epitopes on HPV-11 early proteins, in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles enriched in RRP that should help generate a therapeutic vaccine. Taken together, RRP is a complex, multigene disease manifesting as a tissue and HPV-specific, immune deficiency that prevents effective clearance and/or control of HPV-6 and -11 infection.