Differential expression of MSX2 in nodular hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma
Chua C-W, Chiu Y-T, Yuen H-F, Chan K-W, Wang X, Ling M-T, Wong Y-C. Differential expression of MSX2 in nodular hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma. APMIS 2010; 118: 918–26.
One of the common features in advanced prostate cancer is bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated the clinical relevance of a bone factor, MSX2, in predicting the metastatic ability of prostate adenocarcinoma. Evaluation of MSX2 expression was performed using prostate cell lines as well as patient specimens. A sharp decrease in MSX2 was found in primary prostate cancer cells, 22Rv1, when compared with the non-malignant counterparts, followed by a gradual increase in more aggressive prostate cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the MSX2 protein was upregulated and predominantly expressed in the nucleus in aggressive prostate cancer cell line, C4-2b, compared with the less aggressive 22Rv1. Consistent with the in vitro results, MSX2 nuclear expression was significantly higher in nodular hyperplasia when compared with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), while MSX2 nuclear expression in prostate adenocarcinoma was higher than that in high-grade PIN. Importantly, MSX2 expression was increased significantly in tumors with metastasis compared with those without metastasis. Finally, MSX2 nuclear scores were significantly increased in patients with preoperative serum PSA >20 ng/mL. No correlation between MSX2 nuclear score and Gleason score was found. Taken together, MSX2 may serve as a potential biomarker in predicting primary prostate tumors with higher metastatic capability.