Gleesen AS, Grarup C, Dargis R, Andresen K, Christensen JJ, Kemp M. PCR and DNA sequencing in establishing the aetiology of bacterial infections in children. APMIS 2008;116:811–5. The results of partial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and subsequent DNA sequencing of clinical samples from children are described. In 13 out of 62 samples, DNA from bacteria likely to be the cause of infection was identified. In the vast majority (11/13) of samples with significant pathogen culture the specimen had been negative. Antibiotics had been given in all cases except for three prior to sampling. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing is a valuable supplementary tool for establishing the cause of bacterial infections in children when culture is negative.