Pollheimer VS, Bodo K, Pollheimer MJ, Zigeuner R, Langner C. Merkel cell carcinoma metastasizing to the kidney mimicking primary neuroendocrine renal cancer. Case report. APMIS 2207;115:774–7. A 56-year-old male with a history of cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma presented with a solid mass of the left kidney, measuring 10 cm in largest diameter. On histology, the tumour was composed of loosely packed uniform cells with round-to-oval nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells diffusely expressed pancytokeratin and neuroendocrine markers, such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin and CD56 (NCAM). Distinct paranuclear dot-like expression of cytokeratin 20 showed the lesion to be metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the kidney mimicking primary neuroendocrine renal cancer. We discuss the differential diagnosis of the tumour and perform a systematic literature review, including potential indications for renal tumour biopsy in patients with a history of nonrenal malignancy.