Skip to main content

Co-infection ratios versus inflammation, growth factors and progression of early atheromas

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Higuchi ML, Góis JM, Reis MM, Higuchi-dos-Santos MH, Diament J, Sousa JM, Ramires JAF, Oliveira SA. Co-infection ratios versus inflammation, growth factors and progression of early atheromas. APMIS 2006;114:338–44.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) antigens are encountered in complicated atheromas and may be implicated in the diversity of atherosclerotic lesions. Mycoplasma can downregulate the immune system, altering levels of inflammation, which may favor the proliferation of other co-infectious agents. In the present study we analyze whether initially stable human atheromas exhibit different ratios of MP/CP antigens compared to ongoing atheromatous lesions. Two groups were examined for the presence of inflammatory cells, macrophages, growth factors and infectious agents: Group I (GI), n=16, early stable atheromas, <4 CD68+ macrophages/400×field, showing a normal distribution and a fibrous cap; Group II (GII), n=14, growing atheromas, ≥4 CD68+ cells/400×field, lacking a fibrous cap, showing a non-normal macrophage distribution. The amounts of CP (but not MP) antigens and lymphocytes in GI were significantly lower than in GII. MP/CP ratios were higher in GI. MP correlated with CP and PDGFB in GI (r=0.79 and r=0.83, p<0.001), but not in GII (r=−0.4 and r=−0.08, p=0.81). MP and CP antigens are already present in early atheromas, and a higher MP/CP ratio correlates with increased growth factors, lower inflammation and plaque stability.

Keywords: Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; atherosclerosis; growth factors; inflammatory cells

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Portuguese Charity Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil 2: Heart Institute of Clinical Hospital, Medical School, University of São Paulo, and

Publication date: May 1, 2006


Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more