Péterfi Z, Kovács K, Antal A, Kocsis B. Anti-lipopolysaccharide antibodies in acute appendicitis detected by ELISA. APMIS 2006;114:265–9. In acute appendicitis the bowel transmissibility of the intestinal flora increases in relation to inflammation and edema formation. We can therefore observe an immunologic response in patients, which is detectable using different bacteria isolated from the normal intestinal flora. Our aim was to measure this immunologic reaction and to detect the relationship between this response and histologic types of acute appendicitis. Sera from 47 cases, comprising 38 patients suffering from appendicitis and 9 healthy controls, were examined. The sera were taken shortly before appendectomy and 14 days after operation. The antigens were lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from bacteria of normal intestinal flora: Escherichia coli O21, O22, O33, O61, O68, Bacteroides fragilis and an absolute rough mutant: Shigella sonnei Re 4350. Antibodies were detected by ELISA. We showed a direct relationship between severity of appendicitis and registered antibody titer. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria play a role in infection in appendicitis. According to our serologic results the synergy of B. fragilis with E. coli from normal flora is more important in the initiation of inflammation, but in the perforation process the role of E. coli seems more important compared to that of B. fragilis.