Hanson C, Caisander G. Human embryonic stem cells and chromosome stability. APMIS 2005;113: 751–5. The use of human embryonic stem cells (HESC) in research is increasing exponentially and HESC will certainly be of importance in biological, clinical and toxicological research for many years to come. Once established, HESC lines are expected to be chromosomally stable. However, our own experience of culturing HESC and some published reports indicate that HESC may show chromosomal instability while being cultured continuously in vitro. We conclude that the effects of different culture techniques and long-term culture on the chromosome stability of HESC still remain to be elucidated and we recommend regular analysis of the chromosome constitution in cell lines using traditional karyotyping, CGH, FISH and PCR. We also recommend freezing of HESC at low passage number and in larger batches after thawing and expansion in order to secure material in case mutations occur in the cell line at a later stage of culture.