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Sonne-Hansen J, Jenabian SM. Molecular serotyping of Salmonella: Identification of the phase 1 H antigen based on partial sequencing of the fliC gene. APMIS 2005;113:340–8. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and non-labour-intensive molecular method to identify the phase 1 H antigens of Salmonella. The variable region of the flagellin gene, fliC, from 96 Salmonella strains representing 51 different phase 1 H antigens was sequenced in one direction. Unique sequences were found for 45 of the 51 different antigens. We were not able to separate either H:z42 from H:d; H:g, q from H:g, m, q; H:l, w from H:Rl, z40 or H:l, (v),z13 from H:l,z,13. Several phase 2 H antigens were found to be encoded by fliC. Polymorphism, at the subspecies level, was observed in fliC of H:b, H:d, H:z10, H:z and especially H:k. By this method we were also able to confirm that one monophasic strain possesses a new antigen, H:z91. This study shows that sequence-based typing of the phase 1 H antigen of Salmonella is a good alternative to serotyping when strains are non-typable by serological methods.