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Samaranayake YH, Samaranayake LP, Yau JYY, Dassanayake RS, Li TKL, Anil S. Phenotypic diversity of oral C. albicans isolated on single and sequential visits in an HIV-infected Chinese cohort. APMIS 2003;111:329–37. HIV-infected individuals maintain multiple oral C. albicans strains over time that are thought to undergo microevolution in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic features. To study this phenomenon, a 12-month prospective study was conducted in a cohort of 16 HIV-infected ethnic Chinese individuals with (A) and without (B) symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis to evaluate the phenotype distribution among oral C. albicans isolates during disease progression. Oral rinse samples were obtained and up to five C. albicans colony-forming units were selected per each visit, during the one year period of multiple visits. The isolates were phenotyped using two commercially available biotyping kits, the API 20C system, API ZYM system, and a plate test for resistance to boric acid. A total of 261 C. albicans strains in group A were differentiated into 67 biotypes, while 42 biotypes were seen amongst the 182 isolates from group B. The major biotypes in the two groups were similar and were in decreasing order of prevalence J1R, J1S, J6S, J6R, J2S, K1S, J10R, K1R, and K6R; 48 different biotypes were seen in group A and 24 in group B, with some uniquely represented in each group, leading to a significant association between the prevalence of the biotypes J1S and J2S and symptomatic candidiasis (p<0.05). Taken together this study illustrates the wide phenotypic spectrum of oral C. albicans associated with HIV-infection.