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Toppari J, Suominen JS, Yan W. The role of retinoblastoma protein family in the control of germ cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. APMIS 2003;111:245–51. Retinoblastoma family proteins pRb, p107 and p130 are differentially expressed in the rat testis. They function in specific cell types during testicular development and spermatogenesis, participating in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Their expression levels and phosphorylation status are modulated during germ cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Hyperphosphorylated states and elevated levels of p107 are correlated with cell cycle progression, whereas hypophosphorylated states and reduced levels are associated with suppression of proliferation and apoptosis in germ cells and Leydig cells. These proteins may also serve as markers of cell cycle status of germ cells during spermatogenesis.