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Conversion of hydroxylamine ( HA) to nitric oxide ( NO) has been studied in the presence or absence of human neutrophils with or without myristate acetate phorbol ( PMA), catalase ( CAT), hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2 ), and superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The generation of NO from HA in the presence of neutrophils was higher than in the cell-free system. We found that catalase did not influence the nitrite generation from HA in the cell-free system and in the presence of neutrophils. The H2O2 enhanced the NO generation from HA in the presence of neutrophils only. When catalase and H2O2 were added together, a high increase of NO generation from HA in both systems was observed. The addition of SOD decreased whereas addition of PMA enhanced the NO generation from HA in the presence of neutrophils. The presented data show the possible role of oxygen radicals in the decomposition of HA to NO. The addition of NOS inhibitors to the culture of neutrophils decreased the generation of nitrite from HA. Our results suggest that NO generation from HA, which is an intermediate in NO production from L-arginine, may be supported by an enzymatic pathway in which cellular NO synthase is involved.