Genotoxic potential of xenobiotic growth promoters and their metabolites: Review article
This paper reviews data reported in the literature as well as recent and unpublished studies from our laboratory on the metabolism and genotoxicity of the xenobiotic growth promoters 17β-trenbolone, melengestrol acetate and zeranol. In our metabolic study, the oxidative in vitro metabolites generated by hepatic microsomes from rats, bovine and humans were analyzed by and /. 17β-Trenbolone gave rise to at least 13 monohydroxylated products, whereas 12 mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites were obtained with melengestrol acetate and at least 5 with zeranol. The genotoxic potential of the parent compounds was studied using the following endpoints: induction of mutations in cultured V79 cells and of lacI mutations in E. coli; induction of micronuclei in V79 cells; and formation of DNA adducts in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. Negative results were obtained in most of these assay systems. Only the micronucleus induction was marginally positive with 17β-trenbolone and zeranol at near-cytotoxic concentrations. Commercial melengestrol acetate was found to contain an impurity causing apoptosis in V79 cells. The genotoxic potential of the numerous oxidative metabolites of the xenobiotic growth promoters remains to be studied.