Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens: Review article
The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue type. Oligosaccharides with blood-group specificity are synthesized by the stepwise action of specific gene-encoded glycosyltransferases. In general, this stepwise synthesis of histo-blood group antigens correlates with cellular differentiation. The H and the Se genes both encode an α1–2fucosyltransferase, which is responsible for the synthesis of blood group antigen H from precursor disaccharides. A new model for the participation of the Se/H-gene-encoded glycosyl transferases in synthesis of terminal histo-blood group antigens in human tissues is proposed; the type and degree of differentiation rather than the embryologic origin determines whether it is the H or the Se gene-encoded transferases that influence expression of terminal histo-blood group antigens in tissues.
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Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: 2000-01-01