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Aerobiological and immunochemical studies on Carica papaya L. pollen: an aeroallergen from India

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Background: 

Carica papaya L. is a fruit yielding tree, wildly grown or cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. Its pollen grain has been reported to be airborne and cause immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity. Objective: 

To conduct long-term aerobiological study on Carica pollen, along with aeroallergenic particles originating from it and to identify vis-à-vis characterize an important IgE-reactive component present in this pollen. Methods: 

The seasonal and diurnal periodicities of airborne C. papaya pollen were recorded in a 5-year survey using a Burkard volumetric sampler. The allergenic potential was studied by skin prick tests, IgE-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and also by aeroallergen immunoblotting. The total pollen extract was fractionated by Sephacryl S-200 column, and out of the eluted five fractions, the maximum IgE-reactive fraction (as found in ELISA inhibition) was resolved into five major subfractions in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The subfraction with optimum IgE reactivity was studied by activity gel, native and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The homogeneity of the isolated protein fraction was checked by crossed immunoelectrophoresis with rabbit antisera and IgE reactivity was confirmed by ELISA inhibition and immunoblotting using individual patient sera. Results: 

The Carica pollen occurred in the air round the year with peaks during January and September–October. Among a patient population of 1000, skin-test results showed 27.8% +1 level and 5.6% +2/+3 level reactions. In aeroallergen immunoblotting of exposed Burkard tape segments, the detected allergen spots showed a significant correlation with airborne pollen count recorded. The pollen extract elicited loss of IgE reactivity when treated with reducing agent-like β-mercaptoethanol and heat, but showed six IgE-reactive components in nonreducing IgE-immunoblot. The fraction 1 eluted from Sephacryl S-200 column showed highest IgE reactivity and resolved into five major components in RP-HPLC. Out of these, the fraction showing optimum IgE reactivity in IgE-ELISA inhibition and immunoblotting with patient antisera, elicited esterase activity and found to be a homogenous protein of 100 kDa. Conclusion: 

Carica papaya tree contributes significantly to the aeropollen and aeroallergen load of the suburban outskirts of Calcutta metropolis, India. The pollen extract contains an important IgE-reactive protein component of 100 kDa molecular weight with esterase activity.
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Keywords: 100 kDa allergen; Carica papaya pollen; aeroallergen; esterase activity; immunoglobulin E reactivity

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Botany, Bose Institute, Calcutta, India 2: Allergy Unit, Institute of Child Health, Calcutta, India 3: Centre for Study of Man and Environment, Salt Lake, Calcutta, India

Publication date: 2005-07-01

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