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IgE antibodies to -5 gliadin in children with wheat-induced anaphylaxis

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Background: 

Wheat can cause severe immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated systemic reactions including anaphylaxis but knowledge on relevant wheat allergens at the molecular level is scanty. Methods: 

Seven children (aged from 6 months to 13 years) experiencing from 2 to 10 anaphylactic reactions in a year after eating food-containing wheat were examined. Purified -5 gliadin was used as an allergen in IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in skin prick testing (SPT). Wheat CAP radioallergosorbent test (RAST) and SPT were also examined. Results: 

All seven anaphylactic children, but none of 15 control subjects had IgE antibodies to -5 gliadin in ELISA. Five of the six tested anaphylactic children showed positive SPT to -5 and crude gliadin, and all seven had positive wheat CAP RAST and SPT. One child was challenged with wheat, which caused anaphylaxis. After adherence to a wheat-free diet four children remained symptomless and three experienced one to two anaphylactic reactions. Conclusion: 

The present results show that wheat -5 gliadin is a major sensitizing allergen in children with wheat-induced anaphylaxis. They also suggest that -5 gliadin IgE ELISA could be used as a diagnostic test for this severe allergy.
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Keywords: anaphylaxis; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; gliadin; wheat

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand 2: Laboratory of Immunotoxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland 3: Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

Publication date: 2005-04-01

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