Predictors of persistence in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results from an 11‐year controlled follow‐up study
Abstract:Biederman J, Petty CR, O’Connor KB, Hyder LL, Faraone SV. Predictors of persistence in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results from an 11‐year controlled follow‐up study.
Objective: This study sought to examine the age‐dependent persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its predictors in a large sample of girls with and without ADHD followed prospectively for 11 years into young adulthood.
Method: Participants were girls with (N = 96) and without (N = 91) ADHD and were 6–17 years old at the baseline assessment (mean age, 11 years) and 15–30 years old at the follow‐up assessment (mean: 22 years). Participants were comprehensively and blindly assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and assessments of cognitive, social, school, and family functioning.
Results: At the 11‐year follow‐up, 33.3% met full criteria for ADHD, 29.2% showed partial persistence of the disorder, 10.4% had impaired functioning, and 4.2% were remitted but treated (77.1% of the sample). Predictors of persistence were psychiatric comorbidity, family history of psychopathology, and family and school functioning at baseline.
Conclusion: These long‐term, prospective, follow‐up findings extend to girls findings that ADHD is persistent over the long term and can be predicted from psychosocial adversity and psychiatric comorbidity ascertained 11 years earlier.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 2: Departments of Psychiatry and of Neuroscience & Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA
Publication date: February 1, 2012