Skip to main content

Gender differences in bipolar disorder type I and II

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Suominen K, Mantere O, Valtonen H, Arvilommi P, Leppämäki S, Isometsä E. Gender differences in bipolar disorder type I and II. Objective: 

We investigated gender differences in bipolar disorder (BD) type I and II in a representative cohort of secondary care psychiatric in- and out-patients. Method: 

In the prospective, naturalistic Jorvi Bipolar Study of 191 secondary care psychiatric in- and out-patients, 160 patients (85.1%) could be followed up for 18 months with a life chart. Results: 

After adjusting for confounders, no marked differences in illness-related characteristics were found. However, female patients with BD had more lifetime comorbid eating disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 5.99, 95% CI 2.12–16.93) but less substance use disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.16–0.56) than males. Median time to recurrence after remission was 3.1 months longer among men than women, female gender carrying a higher hazard of recurrence (P = 0.006, HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.22–3.27). Conclusion: 

Men and women with type I and II BD have fairly similar illness-related clinical characteristics, but their profile of comorbid disorders may differ significantly, particularly regarding substance use and eating disorders. In medium-term follow-up, females appear to have a higher hazard of recurrence than males.

Keywords: affective disorders; bipolar disorder; follow-up; gender; mood disorder

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: December 1, 2009


Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more