Respiratory patterns in panic disorder reviewed: a focus on biological challenge tests

$48.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Download / Buy Article:


Niccolai V, van Duinen MA, Griez EJ. Respiratory patterns in panic disorder reviewed: a focus on biological challenge tests. Objective: 

To provide a systematic review of studies investigating respiration in PD and comments on relative inconsistencies. Method: 

A Medline search of controlled studies focusing on pCO2, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute volume in PD patients was conducted for baseline/resting condition, challenge, and recovery phase. Respiratory variability and comparisons between panickers and non-panickers were also examined. Results: 

Lower pCO2 levels in PD subjects are a consistent finding during the baseline/resting condition, the challenge, and recovery phases. Tidal volume and minute volume are increased in PD subjects relative to controls during the baseline/resting condition. However, the most robust finding is a higher than normal respiratory variability, which appears to be a promising factor for the identification of respiratory etiopathological pathways in PD. Conclusion: 

Respiratory variability might be a candidate for a biological marker of PD: an abnormal breathing pattern as found in panic disorder (PD) patients compared with controls might indicate instability of the respiratory homeostasis.

Keywords: baseline; challenge; panic; recovery; respiration

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: School of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

Publication date: September 1, 2009

Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more