Vasiliadis H-M, Gilman SE, Buka SL. Fetal growth restriction and the development of major depression. Objective: To test the association between fetal growth restriction and the lifetime risk of major depression and the number of recurrent episodes. Method: Study subjects (n = 1101) were offspring of participants in the Providence, RI, site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between measures of birth size and the lifetime risk of depression and the mean number of depressive episodes was compared across categories of birth size. Results: There was no association between low birth weight, gestational age, ponderal index and small for gestational age and the lifetime risk of major depression, or the number of recurrent episodes. Conclusion: Fetal growth restriction, as reflected by multiple measures of birth size, is not associated with the risk of a major depression or the subsequent recurrence of depressive episodes. Results of this study do not support a ‘fetal programming’ effect in depression.