Skip to main content

Changes in negative symptoms and the risk of tardive dyskinesia:a longitudinal study

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Objective –To examine whether the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) is accompanied by a parallel process of worsening negative symptoms in a longitudinal study. Method –A sample of 708 psychotic patients were followed over a period of 2 years, using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative symptoms. Results –Of 361 individuals with no prior evidence of dyskinesia, 46 (13%) developed TD by year 2. Independent of the effects of male sex (odds ratio (OR)=2.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.00–4.74), age (OR per quartile group=1.39, 95% CI: 1.01–1.90), duration of exposure to antipsychotic medication (OR=2.35 per 8 months, 95% CI: 1.17–4.72) and average SANS score (OR per quartile group=1.38, 95% CI: 0.99–1.93), worsening of negative symptoms over the 2 previous years was associated with TD onset (OR per quartile group=1.46, 95% CI: 1.07–2.00). Conclusion –The development of TD is linked, independent of the effect of antipsychotics and older age, to an illness‐related pathological process, characterized by worsening negative symptoms.

Keywords: negative symptoms; psychosis; schizophrenia; tardive dyskinesia

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: April 1, 2000


Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more