Background: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) may interfere with renal function because of continuous fluid irrigation and compression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine on renal function in patients undergoing PCNL. Methods: This study included 40 patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years who underwent PCNL. After induction of anesthesia, we administered 100 ml of normal saline to the patients in the control group (n=20) and 1 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine in 100 ml of normal saline to the patients in the dexmedetomidine group (n=20) over 10 min. Throughout the surgery, 1 mcg/kg/h dexmedetomidine and 1 ml/kg/h normal saline infusions were given to the dexmedetomidine and control groups, respectively. Renal function, electrolytes, serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C were analyzed after induction and post-operatively at 2, 8 and 24 h. Renin levels and blood gas analyses were performed after induction and before extubation. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups with regard to renal function, creatinine clearance (CrCl), NGAL, cystatin C and serum electrolyte levels at 0, 2, 8 and 24 h post-operatively. End-surgery renin levels in the dexmedetomidine group were significantly lower than the baseline levels in the control group. Conclusion: In PCNL, an intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine was not found to have beneficial effects on CrCl, NGAL or cystatin C levels early after the procedure; however, it reduced renin levels.