If you are experiencing problems downloading PDF or HTML fulltext, our helpdesk recommend clearing your browser cache and trying again. If you need help in clearing your cache, please click here . Still need help? Email help@ingentaconnect.com

Current practice of hemodynamic monitoring and vasopressor and inotropic therapy in post-operative cardiac surgery patients in Germany: results from a postal survey

$48.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Download / Buy Article:



In Germany, more than 100,000 patients are monitored and treated in 80 intensive care units (ICUs) following cardiac surgery each year. The controversies concerning the different methods of hemodynamic monitoring and the appropriate agents for volume therapy and inotropic support are well known. However, little is known about how monitoring and treatment are currently performed. Methods: 

A questionnaire with 39 questions was sent to the leading physicians of 80 ICUs in Germany, treating patients after cardiac surgery. The questions to be answered covered the current practice of hemodynamic monitoring, volume replacement, inotropic/vasopressor support and transfusions in patients after cardiac surgery. Results: 

Sixty-nine per cent of the questionnaires were completed and returned. All ICUs used basic monitoring as recommended by the societies. The use of advanced hemodynamic monitoring included the pulmonary artery catheter (58.2%), transesophageal echocardiography (38.1%) and transpulmonary dilution techniques (13%). Crystalloids (21.2%) and colloids (73%) were used for volume replacement. Epinephrine (41.8%) and dobutamine (30.9%) were the first-choice inotropic drugs for the treatment of low cardiac output syndrome, followed by phosphodiesterase inhibitors (14.5%). Second-choice drugs for the treatment of low cardiac output syndrome were enoximone (29%), milrinone (25%) and dobutamine (25%). A written transfusion protocol and a transfusion threshold for red blood cells existed in 59% and 79% of ICUs, respectively. Conclusion: 

Hemodynamic monitoring and the variability in clinical practice with regard to volume replacement, transfusion triggers and the use of vasopressors/inotropes in cardiac surgery patients tend to follow the results of traditional experience rather than current scientific knowledge. Guidelines are therefore necessary to help to improve the standards of intensive care after cardiac surgery and thus the outcome of patients.

Keywords: cardiac surgery; colloids; crystalloids; hemodynamic monitoring; inotropic drugs; survey; transfusion trigger; vasoactive drugs; volume replacement

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01190.x

Affiliations: 1: Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité– Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin 2: Abt. XVII – Herz-und Gefäßchirurgie, BwZK, Koblenz 3: Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin 4: Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany

Publication date: March 1, 2007

Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more