Background: Testicular torsion is a urological emergency that requires immediate surgical intervention to prevent testicular damage. The aim of the study was to investigate the preventive effects of thiopental and propofol as anesthetics on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Forty male Wistar Albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 rats each. During 5 h, anesthesia was induced and maintained with thiopental in groups 1 and 2 and with propofol in groups 3 and 4. Groups 2 and 4 received left testicular ischemia (torsion) during 1 h and reperfusion (detorsion) during 4 h. Groups 1 and 3 (control groups) had no testicular torsion and detorsion. At the end of 5 h, animals were killed and both ipsilateral and contralateral testes were removed for histopathologic examination and measurement of tissue MDA (malondialdehyde) and NO (nitric oxide) levels. Results: In the contralateral testes of all the groups, MDA and NO measurements were not different from ipsilateral testes of the control groups. Between the groups 1 and 3, there were no differences in MDA and NO levels. Although torsion/detorsion of testes in group 4 caused significantly increased levels of tissue MDA and NO values compared with group 3, ischemia-reperfusion in group 2 caused a further increase in these levels compared with group 4. The ipsilateral testes in the control groups did not show any morphological changes. Testicular torsion/detorsion in rats with thiopental anesthesia (group 2) caused significantly greater histopathologic injury levels than rats with propofol anesthesia (group 4). Conclusion: Our results suggest that propofol as an anesthetic agent may prevent testicular damage by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in an animal model of testicular torsion and detorsion.