Venous oxygen saturation during normovolaemic haemodilution in the pig
Hypovolaemia may be considered to represent a volume-restricted cardiac output (CO), but CO varies inversely with the haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and a maximal mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) may be a better target for volume administration than a maximal CO. Methods:
In 10 anaesthetized pigs, volume loading with 6% hydroxyethyl starch was performed to obtain a maximal SvO2 followed by normovolaemic haemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch. Results:
Volume loading increased SvO2 from 55.0 ± 5.2% to 64.8 ± 9.0% (mean ± SD) associated with an increase in CO (2.3 ± 0.4 to 3.5 ± 0.9 l/min) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2; 68.2 ± 9.3% to 79.4 ± 7.2%; P < 0.05). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial (MAP), central venous (CVP), pulmonary arterial mean (PAMP), and occlusion pressures (PAOP) increased as well (P < 0.05). In contrast, during progressive haemodilution, SvO2 and ScvO2 remained statistically unchanged until the haemoglobin concentration had decreased from 5.5 ± 0.4 to 2.9 ± 0.2 mM, while CO and HR increased at a haemoglobin value of 4.4 ± 0.4 and 4.0 ± 0.4 mM and CVP and PAOP decreased at a haemoglobin of 4.0 ± 0.4 and 2.9 ± 0.2 mM, respectively (P < 0.05) leaving MAP unaffected. Conclusion:
This study found that volume loading increased cardiac output and mixed and central venous oxygen saturations in parallel, but during normovolaemic haemodilution an increase in cardiac output left mixed and central venous oxygen saturations statistically unchanged until haemoglobin concentration was reduced by ∼50%. Accordingly, volume therapy should be directed to maintain a high venous oxygen saturation rather than a change in cardiac output.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 2005