Analgesic effects of preincisional administration of dextromethorphan and tenoxicam following laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Pre-incisional treatment with either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) improves postoperative pain relief. This study examines the effect on postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) pain of a combination of dextromethorphan (DM), a NMDA-receptor antagonist, and tenoxicam, a NSAID, given preoperatively. Methods:
Eighty-eight ASA I or II patients scheduled for LC were entered into a randomized, double-blind study and randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received 20 mg (4 ml) of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) IM and 4 ml of normal saline (N/S) IV. Group DM received 40 mg of DM (containing 20 mg of CPM) IM and 4 ml of N/S IV. Group T were given CPM 20 mg IM, and tenoxicam 40 mg (4 ml) IV. Group DM + T were given DM 40 mg (containing 20 mg of CPM) IM, and tenoxicam 40 mg IV. All treatments were given 30 min before skin incision. Analgesic effects were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores at rest and during coughing, at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. The time to the first request for meperidine for pain relief, and total meperidine consumption, were recorded for 48 h after surgery. Results:
Compared to controls, patients given DM and DM + T first requested meperidine significantly later, had lower meperidine consumption, made fewer requests for meperidine, and had lower pain scores. There were significant differences between the DM + T and T groups at 2 and 4 h in both resting and incident VAS pain scores, the incidence of meperidine requests and the time to first meperidine injection. There were significant differences between groups DM and T at 1 h for resting pain and at 2 and 4 h for incident pain. Except for a significant difference in the incident pain score 1 h after surgery, there were no other differences in pain scores between the DM and DM + T groups. Neither synergistic nor antagonistic interaction was observed between DM and tenoxicam. Conclusions:
The results suggest that pretreatment with DM, but not tenoxicam, provides significant pre-emptive analgesia for postoperative pain management in patients after LC surgery. Combining DM and tenoxicam also gives good pain relief.