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Successful treatment with enoximone for severe poisoning with atenolol and verapamil: a case report

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Combined poisoning with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and beta-blockers is usually associated with severe hypotension and heart failure. Due to the block of the beta receptors, treatment with adrenergic agonists, even at high doses, can be insufficient, and beta-independent inotropes, such as glucagon, may be required. Phosphodiesterase III (PDEIII) inhibitors represent a possible alternative to glucagon in these cases as they have an inotropic effect which is not mediated by a beta receptor.

Keywords: Antidotes; atenolol; cardiogenic shock; enoximone; poisoning; verapamil

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, and 2: Poison Control Center, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, and 3: Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Ospedale Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy

Publication date: July 1, 2004

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