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Fluid challenge in patients at risk for fluid loading-induced pulmonary edema

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Abstract:

Background: 

This study evaluated the effects of protocol-guided fluid loading on extravascular lung water (EVLW) and hemodynamics in a group of patients at high risk for volume expansion-induced pulmonary and systemic edema. Methods: 

Nine acutely admitted septic patients with acute lung injury (ALI) were prospectively studied. In addition to sepsis and ALI, the following criteria indicating increased risk for edema formation had to be fulfilled: increased vascular permeability defined as microalbuminuria greater than fivefold normal and hypoalbuminemia <30 g l−1. Two hundred-ml boluses of a 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) was titrated to obtain best filling pressure/stroke volume relation. Extravascular lung water and intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV) were measured using a transpulmonary double-indicator dilution technique. Baseline data were compared with data at the end of fluid loading and 3 h postchallenge. Results: 

At study entry the mean EVLW was 13 ml kg−1, and the mean EVLW/ITBV ratio (indicator of pulmonary permeability) was 0.72 (normal range 0.20–0.30). To attain optimal preload/stroke volume relation 633 ± 240 ml of HES was needed. Fluid loading significantly increased preload (CVP, PAOP and ITBV), and stroke volume. Effective pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) rose only slightly. As a result, the Pcap–PAOP gradient decreased. Despite increased cardiac output, EVLW did not change by plasma expansion. Conclusion: 

In this selected group of at-risk patients, the optimization of cardiac output guided by the concept of best individual filling pressure/stroke volume relationship did not worsen permeability pulmonary edema.

Keywords: Acute lung injury; extravascular lung water; fluid resuscitation; microalbuminuria; sepsis; vascular permeability

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00270.x

Affiliations: ICU, 1st Medical Department, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Plzen, Czech Republic

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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