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Temperature-related fluid extravasation during cardiopulmonary bypass: An analysis of filtration coefficients and transcapillary pressures

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Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as used for cardiac surgery and for rewarming individuals suffering deep accidental hypothermia is held responsible for changes in microvascular fluid exchange often leading to edema and organ dysfunction. The purpose of this work is to improve our understanding of fluid pathophysiology and to explore the implications of the changes in determinants of transcapillary fluid exchange during CPB with and without hypothermia. This investigation might give indications on where to focus attention to reduce fluid extravasation during CPB. Methods:

Published data on “Starling variables” as well as reported changes in fluid extravasation, tissue fluid contents and lymph flow were analyzed together with assumed/estimated values for variables not measured. The analysis was based on the Starling hypothesis where the transcapillary fluid filtration rate is given by:

JV=Kf[Pc−Pi−σ(COPp−COPi)]. Here Kf is the capillary filtration coefficient, σ the reflection coefficient, P and COP are hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures, and subscript ‘c’ refers to capillary, ‘i` to the interstitium and `p’ to plasma. Results and conclusion:

The analysis indicates that attempts to limit fluid extravasation during normothermic CPB should address primarily changes in Kf, while changes in both Kf and Pc must be considered during hypothermic CPB.
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Keywords: Extracorporeal circulation; capillary filtration coefficient; capillary pressure; colloid osmotic pressure; fluid transport; interstitial fluid pressure; reflection coefficient

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

Publication date: 2002-01-01

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