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Improved cerebral blood supply and oxygenation by aortic balloon occlusion combined with intra-aortic vasopressin administration during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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Abstract:

Background:

Intravenous administration of vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to improve myocardial and cerebral blood flow. Aortic balloon occlusion during CPR may also augment myocardial and cerebral blood flow and can be used as a central route for the administration of resuscitative drugs. We hypothesized that, as compared with intravenously administered vasopressin, the administration of this drug above the site of an aortic balloon occlusion would result in a greater increase in cerebral perfusion and oxygenation during CPR and after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods:

Twenty piglets were subjected to 5 min of ventricular fibrillation followed by 8 min of closed-chest CPR and were treated with 0.4 U kg−1 boluses of vasopressin intravenously (the IV-vasopressin group with sham aortic balloon) or above the site for an aortic balloon occlusion (the balloon-vasopressin group). The aortic balloon catheter was inflated in the latter group 1 min after commencement of CPR and was deflated within 1 min after ROSC. Systemic blood pressures, cerebral cortical blood flow, cerebral tissue pH and PCO2 were monitored continuously and the cerebral oxygen extraction ratio was calculated. Results:

During CPR, arterial blood pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure were greater in the balloon-vasopressin group, as compared with the IV-vasopressin group. These pressures did not differ between the groups after ROSC. Cerebral cortical blood flow was not significantly greater in the balloon-vasopressin group during CPR, whereas significantly higher cortical blood flow levels were recorded after ROSC. Cerebral tissue pH decreased in the IV-vasopressin group during the post-resuscitation hypoperfusion period. In contrast, decreasing pressures during the hypoperfusion period did not result in increasing tissue acidosis in the balloon-vasopressin group. Conclusions:

During CPR, intra-aortic vasopressin combined with aortic balloon occlusion resulted in significantly greater perfusion pressures but not in greater cerebral cortical blood flow. After ROSC, however, a greater increase in cortical blood flow was recorded in the balloon-vasopressin group, even though the aortic balloon was deflated and perfusion pressures did not differ between the groups. This suggests that vasopressin predominantly gives vasoconstrictive effects on cerebral cortical vessels during CPR, but results in cerebral cortical vasodilatation after ROSC.

Keywords: Heart arrest; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; cerebral cortex blood supply; cerebral oxygen extraction; cerebrovascular circulation; intra-aortic balloon occlusion; vasopressin

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-6576.2000.441005.x

Publication date: November 1, 2000

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