Closed-loop control of propofol delivery was instituted in three patients who received a propofol infusion as part of: (Case 1) general “balanced” anesthesia, (Case 2) total intravenous anesthesia, and (Case 3) monitored anesthesia care. The bispectral index was the input variable used in a proportioned, integral and differential controller to determine the infusion rate of propofol required to maintain a stable level of hypnosis (Cases 1 and 2) or sedation (Case 3). This feedback control system provided intraoperative hemodynamic stability and a prompt recovery from the sedative-hypnotic effects of propofol.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Hirosaki School of Medicine, Japan
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA
Publication date: 2000-09-01