Effects of intraperitoneal lidocaine combined with intravenous or intraperitoneal tenoxicam on pain relief and bowel recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Previous work has demonstrated that intraperitoneal (i.p.) lidocaine may provide analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare pain relief, recovery variables, and side effects after i.p. instillation of lidocaine plus tenoxicam given either i.v. or i.p. after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods:
Ninety patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups to receive either 200 ml normal saline i.p. and 2 ml of normal saline i.v. (saline group), 200 ml lidocaine 0.1% i.p. and 2 ml tenoxicam 20 mg i.v. (tenoxicam i.v. group), or 200 ml lidocaine 0.1% with 20 mg tenoxicam i.p. and 2 ml of normal saline i.v. (tenoxicam i.p. group). The i.p. instillation was made under the right diaphragm and on the gall bladder bed. VAS pain scores at rest, on movement and during coughing, were measured 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after operation. The time to first demand of analgesia, total analgesic requirement, recovery variables, and side effects were investigated. Results:
In the tenoxicam i.p. group, pain scores were significantly lower both at rest and on movement and analgesic consumption was reduced compared with the saline group (P<0.05). In the tenoxicam i.v. group, pain scores at rest were significantly lower compared with the saline group. Although recovery of bowel function was significantly faster in the tenoxicam i.p. group (P<0.05), there were no differences in any other recovery characteristics or incidence of nausea between the groups. Conclusion:
Combination of intraperitoneal lidocaine and tenoxicam provided better analgesia on movement, and faster return of bowel function compared with i.p. lidocaine and i.v. tenoxicam during the 24 h period after surgery.