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Extremely Pb-rich rock-forming silicates including a beryllian scapolite and associated minerals in a skarn from Långban, Värmland, Sweden

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We report preliminary petrographic and mineral chemical data for a rock hosting an unusual mineral assemblage from Långban, Vårmland, Sweden. The rock is a two feldspar-scapolite-spessartine-romeite skarn. The bulk composition and high degree of enrichment in Pb, Sb and As suggest that the rock was formed by reaction between a pre-existing Mn skarn containing the chalcophiles and a potassic granite, with loss of silica, alkalis and CO2. The alkali feldspar is a Pb-rich hyalophane, averaging Or63Ab19Cs15Pb03, the plagioclase feldspar a Pb-rich labradorite, An48Ab48Or02Pb02, and the scapolite a 'mizzonite' (Ca/(Na+Ca) = 0.66–0.70). These minerals show their highest Pb contents recorded in nature to date: up to a maximum of 5.7 wt.% PbO in the hyalophane, 2.1% PbO in the plagioclase, and 5.3% PbO in the scapolite. Laser ablation ICP-MS of a scapolite grain detected substantial Be up to 1.7 wt.% BeO (0.6 Be per 12 tetrahedral cations), as well as Pb up to 7.05 wt.% PbO. The Be is incorporated into scapolite via the coupled exchange [Be(OH)][Al(CO3,SO4)]−1. This is the first documentation of scapolite as the major repository for Be in a rock.

The romeite also contains substantial Pb, and shows extensive solid solution towards end-members containing Fe3+, Ti and Sb3+. In some analyses, the dominant end-members are Ca2(Fe3+0.5Sb5+1.5)O6(OH) and its Pb analogue rather than (Ca,Pb)2Sb2O7. Complex exsolution textures are displayed in the hyalophane, by hancockite-epidote, romeite-bindheimite and hedyphane-johnbaumite. Ca-rich scapolite and hancockite appear to be new minerals for the Långban deposit.

The mineralogy appears consistent with the regional peak conditions of P = 3 kbar, T > 600°C. Several potential thermobarometers for Mn-rich skarns are identified in this rock.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2005-12-01

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