Binary cation exchange in clinoptilolite involving K+, Na+, Ba2+ and Ca2+ at 30 and 95°C: a calorimetric study
Abstract:A binary ion exchange of cationic pairs involving K, Na, Ba and Ca in clinoptilolite was investigated calorimetrically. The selected cations included two pairs equal in charge and two pairs similar in size. The heats of ion exchange and the degrees of exchange were determined at 30 and 95°C. The data obtained are discussed with respect to cationic interactions in the clinoptilolite structure and hydration characteristics (heats of hydration and hydration numbers) of competing cations in the solution. No correlation was found between the heat effects and the degree of exchange. The heat of exchange depends mainly on the difference between the hydration heats of the cations in the solution, whereas the degree of exchange depends on their positioning over the extra-framework sites in the clinoptilolite structure. The heats of ion exchange are lower at 95°C than those measured at 30°C, which is due to a decrease of the hydration number with increasing temperature. In all cases the degree of exchange increases with increasing temperature.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2011