Rheological, porosimetric, and SEM studies of cements with additions of natural zeolites
Abstract:Rheological, porosimetric, and SEM studies of cements with additions of natural zeolites (chabazite, mordenite and clinoptilolite) were investigated. The addition of 5% zeolite to cement pastes had a plastifying effect. The increase in the rheological parameters of aqueous cement–zeolite suspensions began after additions of more than 10% zeolite. At a water/solid ratio (w/s) = 0.5 all compositions exhibited similar rheological behaviour for yield stress and maximum shear stress values. At lower w/s values the rheology depended on the zeolite used, decreasing in the order Sl (clinoptilolite, Nižny Hrabovec deposit, Slovakia), M (mordenite, Philipines), Bp (clinoptilolite, Beli Plast deposit, Bulgaria), NM (clinoptilolite, Saint Cloud deposit, New Mexico) and Ch (chabazite, Nasm Yan deposit, Korea).
After 28 days of hydration the mixtures containing 10% Bp clinoptilolite, mordenite, and Sl clinoptilolite (up to 30%) had unchanged specific pore volumes but additions of 10% and 30% of chabazite and NM clinoptilolite and of 30% mordenite and Bp clinoptilolite lead to increases in the total specific pore volume compared to the neat cement paste. Between the 28th and 180th days of hydration the specific volume of the pores in all the cement-zeolite pastes decreased due to the filling of the pores with products from the pozzolanic reaction between the zeolites and the hydration products of the cement.
The pozzolanic reaction between zeolite and the hydration products of cement is enhanced by the zeolite content in the samples and depends on the Si/Al ratio (clinoptilolite (Si/Al >4.5), mordenite (Si/Al >5), chabazite (Si/Al <2.5)) and the surface area (clinoptilolite from Slovakia has the smallest crystallites and, hence, the greatest reactive surface area).
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2011