Sulphur reduction in fluid catalytic cracking using a kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst modified with vanadium

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Sulphur reduction catalysts represent a viable option for S reduction in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. In this paper, a kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst was modified with vanadium and evaluated in a fixed fluid bed (FFB) reactor. The relation between the acidity of the catalyst, the S reduction rate and the catalyst activity is discussed. The results show that increasing weak Lewis acid acidity favours S reduction in the FCC process. Increasing the V content enhances the weak Lewis acidity, so causing the S reduction rate to increase. The kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst modified with 0.6 wt.% of V leads to a 34.5% reduction in the S content of the liquid product. Comprehensive evaluation of the FFB results and the S reduction ability indicates that the catalyst modified with 0.45 wt.% V provided the best performance.
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