Long-term in vitro transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite to goethite/hematite at 4, 10, 15 and 25°C
2-line ferrihydrite stored in water at ambient temperatures from 4 to 25°C and at ten different pH values between 2.5 and 12 for up to 10–12 y transformed to both goethite and hematite at all temperatures and pH values except at pH 12 where only goethite was formed. The rate and degree of transformation (20–100%) increased with increasing pH and temperature. The hematite/ (hematite+goethite) ratio varied between 0 and ~0.8, increased with increasing temperature and showed a strong maximum at pH 7–8 which increased from 0.1–0.2 at 4°C to 0.7–0.8 at 25°C. The maximum coincides with the zero point of charge of ferrihydrite where its solubility and, thus, its via-solution transformation rate to goethite are minimal. We assume, therefore, that in this pH-range the (slower) via-solution transformation to hematite can more efficiently compete with that to goethite.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2004-12-01