Mixed-layer kaolinite-illite-vermiculite in North Sea shales

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The finest fractions of Upper Jurassic shales from the North Sea and onshore Denmark contain 80-90% of an illite-smectite-vermiculite (I-S-V) mixed-layer mineral and, in addition a phase which has X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks at 7.20-7.26 Å and 3.56-3.58 Å in air-dried and glycolated specimens. This phase may be a fine kaolinite with a small thickness of coherent scattering domains (CSDs) or alternatively a mixed-layer mineral which has kaolinite as the dominant component. For one sample from the Norwegian well 9/4-3, these alternatives are investigated using the multi-specimen method by which agreement between the experimental pattern and the pattern calculated for one and the same structure is obtained for each of several specimens saturated with different cations and with/without glycolation. It is demonstrated that the modelled XRD patterns for a kaolinite-illite-vermiculite (K-I-V) structure having 0.94 kaolinite, 0.03 illite and 0.03 vermiculite layers and random alternation fit the experimental patterns.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1180/000985599546136

Publication date: June 1, 1999

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