Pupilloidea of Pakistan (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): Truncatellininae, Vertigininae, Gastrocoptinae, Pupillinae (In Part)
Based on over 3,500 dry shells and alcohol-preserved specimens from 77 localities, new records of 12 species (Truncatellina callicratis (Scacchi), T. himalayana (Benson), Boysia boysii (L. Pfeiffer), Vertigo antivertigo (Draparnaud), V. pseudosubstriata Ložek, Gastrocopta avanica (Benson), G. huttoniana (Benson), G. klunzingeri (Jickeli), Pupilla muscorum (Linnaeus), P. annandalei Pilsbry, P. turcmenica (O. Boettger), P. signata (Mousson)) are given; ten species (Columella nymphaepratensis sp. nov., Truncatellina ayubiana sp. nov., T. babusarica sp. nov., Vertigo superstriata sp. nov., V. nangaparbatensis sp. nov., Boysidia tamtouriana sp. nov., Pupilla khunjerabica sp. nov., P. satparanica sp. nov., P. ziaratana sp. nov., P. paraturcmenica sp. nov.) are described. Shell variation is discussed for most species; the reproductive system is described and illustrated for nine species. Northern Pakistan, with its broader altitudinal range and generally wetter environmental conditions, has the highest diversity of pupilloids belonging to the genera discussed herein. Of the 22 species discussed in this report, ten species are currently considered endemic to Pakistan, the other 12 species being known from elsewhere in the region (Asia, Europe, and the Holarctic). The pupilloid fauna displays a high degree of Palaearctic/Holarctic influence at the generic level.